The association between Insulin resistance, a global health issue, and endocrine disruptors (EDCs), chemicals interfering with the endocrine system, has sparked concern in the scientific community. This article provides a comprehensive review of the existing literature regarding the intricate relationship between EDCs and insulin resistance. Phthalates, commonly found in consumer products, are well-established EDCs with documented effects on insulin-signaling pathways and metabolic processes. Epidemiological studies have connected phthalate exposure to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), persistent synthetic compounds, have shown inconsistent associations with T2DM in epidemiological research. However, studies suggest that PFAS may influence insulin resistance and overall metabolic health, with varying effects depending on specific PFAS molecules and study populations. Bisphenol A (BPA), found in plastics and resins, has emerged as a concern for glucose regulation and insulin resistance. Research has linked BPA exposure to T2DM, altered insulin release, obesity, and changes in the mass and function of insulin-secreting β-cells. Triclosan, an antibacterial agent in personal care products, exhibits gender-specific associations with T2DM risk. It may impact gut microbiota, thyroid hormones, obesity, and inflammation, raising concerns about its effects on metabolic health. Furthermore, environmental EDCs like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and heavy metals have demonstrated associations with T2DM, insulin resistance, hypertension, and obesity. Occupational exposure to specific pesticides and heavy metals has been linked to metabolic abnormalities.