The new incredibly informative study I found warns that:
"results of in vitro experiments may be misleading due to several
reasons. Most AGEs products are formed by glycooxidative mechanisms that require oxygen and are
catalyzed by traces of redox active transition metal ions [59,60]. In vitro assays for AGE formation and
inhibition cannot adequately mimic the metal ion distribution or antioxidant and detoxification
mechanisms in tissues and their various compartments. Especially, the sugar concentration and oxygen
pressure are usually much higher in the in vitro experiments than in vivo. Autooxidation of glucose
(Wolff pathway) or Schiff bases (Namiki pathway) may dominate at high glucose in vitro but not at low
glucose and high oxygen level in vivo .
Prevention of Protein Glycation by Natural Compounds (aka The new informative study )
Izabela Sadowska-Bartosz 1,* and Grzegorz Bartosz 1,2
Unfortunately, I think the rutin/tomato conclusions were based on an in vitro experiment. It appears there are actually many similar rutin studies (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21864418), so maybe I’ll find one that is in vivo.
The new informative study states that, “In vitro glycation assays showed that a number of polyphenols exerted inhibitory effects on the glycation reaction. Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in our diets.” Note: tomato is a polyphenol (specifically a flavonoid). Also note: I repeatedly read that there’s a correlation between a food being an antioxidant and that food being an AGE inhibitor (measured in vitro). Eating/Drinking more antioxidants may be a fairly straightforward, easy step toward inhibiting AGEs (assuming that results observed in vitro directly translate to in vivo).
“Phenolic acids are the main polyphenols made by plants…Recent investigations suggested that cinnamic acid derivatives such as ferulic acid (3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and isoferulic acid (3-hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid), which are the main active components of the rhizoma of Cimicifuga heracleifolia, an anti-inflammatory drug used frequently in Japanese traditional medicine, are also AGEs inhibitors [69–71]. The results obtained by Srey et al. (2010) indicated that ferulic acid effectively inhibits CML and CEL formation inmodel food systems .” CEL was the AGE that is lower in Medalists without complications.
This article lists some sources of Ferulic acid: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5466124/ (of course tomatoes are present )
"Ellagic acid is another phenolic acid that, per the new informative study, “seems to
involve, apart from inhibition of a few fluorescent AGEs, predominantly inhibition of CEL through
scavenging of the dicarbonyl compounds. Furthermore, MALDI–TOF-MS (matrix assisted laser-desorption
ionisation–time-of-flight MS) analysis confirms inhibition of the formation of CEL on lysozyme on
in vitro glycation by ellagic acid. Prevention of glycation-mediated β-sheet formation in hemoglobin
and lysozyme by ellagic acid confirm its antiglycating ability . Ellagic acid is found in berries, pomegranate, apples, grapes, orange, guava and cumin.” More Tacos!!!
The new informative study states, “Carnitine was found to be an effective anti-glycating compound both in vitro and in vivo .” Beef is the best source of Carnitine per the NIH: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Carnitine-HealthProfessional/.
I sort of just pasted the entire next section from the new informative article below. I plan to go through and look at the sources eventually, but before looking at the sources, it’s pretty convincing that lowering intake of foods with AGEs could be a big help. Much of what is listed below is in vivo so supposedly it’s worth our time.
"Dietary AGEs constitute a significant source of AGEs in the body. AGEs formation can be rapidly
accelerated by increasing the time and degree of exposure to heat and can be introduced into the body
in heat-processed foods (E. g., pretzel sticks are a rich source of pentosidine and pyrraline)…
"It has been estimated that ca 10% of ingested immunoreactive AGEs are transported into circulation, two-thirds of which remain in the body. Exogenous AGEs are incorporated covalently in tissues, and only one third is excreted via the kidneys . A significant correlation between the amount of ingested AGEs and the
plasma levels of these compounds was found in humans …
"long-term consumption of AGEs in rats was found to increase the levels of fasting glucose, insulin and serum AGEs , and induced a dose-dependent increase in proteinuria that over time could induce renal damage . In mice, reduced dietary AGEs have been found to attenuate insulin resistance, increase the prevention of diabetes and, in diabetic mice, reduce diabetic vascular and renal complications, and improve impaired wound healing …
"Human studies demonstrated that intake of dietary AGEs by people with type 1 and 2 diabetes
promotes the formation of pro-inflammatory mediators, leading to tissue injury …
“All these data suggest that reduction of dietary intake of AGEs and reduction or elimination of
smoking can contribute to lowering the level of AGEs in the body…”
“A study of the effect of 15 natural flavonoids (best emoticon ever! courtesy of @Eric), stilbenes and caffeic acid oligomers pointed to significant inhibition by all the flavonoids tested, especially hesperidin, naringin, quercetin and kaempferol. Resveratrol, piceatannol, epirabdosin, lithospermic acid and lithospermic acid B had also anti-glycating activity similar to aminoguanidine . However, polyphenols act also via interference with RAGE signaling; this effect may contribute to the antitumor activity of polyphenols  so the effects observed may be contributed by other mechanisms irrespective of inhibition of glycation.”
A few portions of this write-up contain in vivo studies, but most of the studies were in vitro. I’m going to do some more research in determining what has been tested in vivo. The new informative study lists some in vivo experiments, but it’s going to take a bit to see which are relevant. All of them are on mice, rats, or zebrafish (strangely).
I’m pretty convinced that eating lots of polyphenols could be helpful in limiting/reducing AGEs. Good news is that these are in a ton of “natural” foods, so simply eating a less processed diet could make a difference.